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Hate crimes

Hate crimes


Title: The Impact of Terrorism on Policing, Racial Profiling, and the Role of the Department of Homeland Security

Introduction: The establishment of terrorism as a domestic crime has significantly altered the landscape of policing in the United States. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security aimed to address the challenges posed by terrorism and enhance coordination between various law enforcement and intelligence agencies. However, there are ongoing debates about the effectiveness of centralizing power within a national police organization, as well as concerns about racial profiling and its impact on victims. In this paper, we will explore these topics, providing insights and evidence from reputable sources.

Terrorism and Policing: The recognition of domestic terrorism as a distinct crime has brought about significant changes in policing strategies and priorities. The attacks on September 11, 2001, prompted a shift in focus towards preventing acts of terrorism on American soil. The establishment of the Department of Homeland Security aimed to foster collaboration between federal, state, and local agencies to counteract threats more effectively. This approach led to improvements in information sharing, joint task forces, and a more cohesive approach to preventing terrorist activities.

Example: The Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs), comprising agents from various federal and local agencies, have successfully disrupted multiple terrorist plots. For instance, the JTTFs played a crucial role in preventing the 2009 New York City subway bombing plot by Najibullah Zazi and associates.

Racial Profiling and Victimhood: The concerns about racial profiling have garnered increased attention over the years. Racial profiling refers to the practice of singling out individuals based on their perceived racial or ethnic background rather than on objective evidence of suspicious behavior. It has been a subject of heated debate due to its potential violation of civil rights and its impact on victims.

Statistics: While it is difficult to provide exact statistics due to underreporting and varying definitions, studies have shown that individuals from minority communities, particularly African Americans and Hispanics, are disproportionately targeted by racial profiling. A report by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) highlights instances of racial profiling in traffic stops, stop-and-frisk encounters, and airport screenings.

Laws and Services for Victims: Several laws and organizations aim to address racial profiling and support its victims. The “End Racial and Religious Profiling Act” (ERRPA) aims to prohibit racial profiling by law enforcement agencies. Additionally, organizations like the ACLU and the NAACP provide resources and legal assistance to victims of racial profiling.

Further Actions for Victims: Beyond legal protections, increasing awareness and training for law enforcement agencies to recognize and prevent racial profiling are crucial. Implementing body-worn cameras and promoting community policing can foster transparency and accountability in interactions between law enforcement and minority communities.

Department of Homeland Security’s Role: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was established in response to the challenges posed by terrorism. Its mission includes coordinating efforts to enhance security, protect critical infrastructure, and respond to emergencies. However, debates persist about whether the DHS has effectively fulfilled its mission or merely duplicated the efforts of other agencies.

Effectiveness: The DHS has played a critical role in improving intelligence sharing and coordination between various agencies. For instance, the DHS operates the Fusion Centers, which facilitate information exchange between federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial partners.

Duplication of Efforts: Critics argue that the DHS has at times duplicated the efforts of existing agencies, leading to inefficiencies and overlaps. For example, some responsibilities of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) were previously managed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Conclusion: The establishment of domestic terrorism as a crime has fundamentally changed policing strategies, leading to enhanced cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Racial profiling remains a significant concern, disproportionately affecting minority communities. While legal protections and organizations provide support to victims, ongoing efforts are required to address the issue comprehensively. The Department of Homeland Security has made strides in countering terrorism through improved coordination, but debates persist regarding its overall effectiveness and potential duplication of efforts. Ultimately, an ongoing commitment to adapt and improve strategies is crucial to effectively address both terrorism and racial profiling.

References: (Note: As an AI, I can’t provide real-time citations. However, I can demonstrate how you might format your references in APA style.)

American Civil Liberties Union. (n.d.). Racial Profiling. https://www.aclu.org/issues/racial-justice/racial-profiling

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2020). Contacts between Police and the Public, 2018. U.S. Department of Justice. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpp18.pdf

End Racial and Religious Profiling Act of 2019, S. 2355, 116th Cong. (2019). https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/2355/text

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2021). Our Mission. https://www.dhs.gov/our-mission

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2021). Fusion Centers. https://www.dhs.gov/fusion-centers

Hate crimes



The challenge of terrorism against the United States led the government to create the Department of Homeland Security with the hope of leveraging federal, state, and local police agencies, intelligence agencies, and immigration agencies to cooperate in communicating findings and creating joint efforts to stop threats of terrorism or confronting a terrorist attack. The current threat of terrorism has made many senators and representatives in Congress think about the United States combining all of its police agencies into one national police organization. The centralization of power would stop the discombobulated nature of the 3 government levels of police and provide a clear, overall standard on how to police not only terrorism acts but crime in general.

Please answer the questions below. Give your opinion concerning the topics, and provide examples. Discuss your findings as far as any statistics that you list concerning the victims. You have an opportunity to discuss your thoughts about what options might be taken concerning victims of racial profiling. Be sure to back up your opinions with facts from cited sources.

Do you believe that the establishment of terrorism as a crime that can be committed domestically has changed policing? How? Why? Provide examples. Have the number of victims of racial profiling increased over the last decade? What laws and services are available for victims of racial profiling? What other actions might be taken on behalf of victims of racial profiling? Has the Department of Homeland Security helped fight terrorism, or has it simply duplicated the efforts and jurisdictions of other agencies? How has it helped?

Be sure to cite all references in APA format.

3-4 pages

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