Welcome to Assignments Writing

Your Trusted Partner in Term Paper Writing

At Assignments Writing, we’re a team of passionate educators and skilled writers committed to supporting students in their academic journey.

ARU Development of Empiricism Paper

ARU Development of Empiricism Paper


Topic: Metaphysics and the Presence of God

René Descartes, an early modern thinker (1596–1655)

Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist renowned for his seminal contributions to epistemology and metaphysics. He investigated the existence of God in his meditations, particularly in the Third Meditation.

Position and arguments of Descartes: Descartes’ famous adage “Cogito, ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am) serves as the foundation of his skepticism. He started by casting doubt on everything he could to establish undeniable knowledge. However, he understood there had to be a thinking self, even when uncertain. He then advanced several points to support his case for God’s existence:

The Causal Argument: According to Descartes, he believed God to be an infinitely flawless being. He asserted that the idea’s origin must be at least as good as its result. Given that he is a finite entity and hence cannot be the source of such an idea, God, who is flawless, must have done so.

Descartes also made a case for the presence of God using the ontological argument. He made the case that God’s existence is a property of God. In other words, God’s essence cannot exist without being. Because the concept of God entails existence, if we have a conception of God, God must exist.

Response and Developments in the Eighteenth Century: Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) and David Hume (1711–1776), two major philosophers, reacted to Descartes’ claims regarding the presence of God.

Hume was critical of rationalistic justifications for the presence of God. He claimed that Descartes’ causal and ontological arguments were defective because they were predicated on false notions of causality and the nature of ideas. Hume maintained that we cannot conclude the existence of God from merely intellectual or philosophical premises.

Immanuel Kant attempted to harmonize reason and empiricism in his “Kant’s Synthesis.” Despite acknowledging the flaws in Descartes’ arguments, he held that rational application could prove God’s existence. In order to provide a foundation for moral obligations, Kant maintained that the existence of God must be accepted as a postulate of morality.

Conclusion on Modern Developments: From Descartes to Hume and Kant, the metaphysical argument concerning the existence of God has undergone tremendous development. Hume’s empiricism and skepticism exposed the limitations of pure reason in establishing the existence of God, challenging Descartes’ rationalistic approach. On the other hand, Kant made the existence of God a moral presupposition to close the gap between reason and experience.

These philosophical stances are still debated in contemporary discussions on God’s existence. While some philosophers embrace an atheistic stance, others investigate other arguments like the cosmological or teleological ones. The controversy remains a key topic in metaphysics and philosophy of religion, with numerous modern philosophers presenting fresh perspectives and criticisms.

ARU Development of Empiricism Paper





Select a topic in Metaphysics (e.g. the existence of God, the mind/soul, causality) Epistemology (the source of our knowledge), or Politics (political origins).  Explain an earlier modern thinker’s position and arguments with respect to that topic (early to late 17th century, e.g. Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley). Discuss and evaluate 18th Century response to and developments of this topic (Hume, Kant, or Hegel).  Critically evaluate the two thinkers and draw a conclusion about modern developments on your topic.

Place Your Order Here

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: We only hire the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of master’s and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. We are known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: We have put in place a team of experts who answer all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.

Format & Features

Our Advantages

How It Works

1. Fill Order Form
2. Make payment
3. Writing process
4. Download paper

Fill in the order form and submit all your files, including instructions, rubrics, and other information given to you by your instructor.

Once you complete filling the forms, complete your payment. We will get the order and assign it to a writer.

When your order is completed, it’s assigned to an editor for approval. The editor approves the order.

Once approved, we will upload the order to your account for you to download.  You can rate your writer or give your customer review.

What Clients Said


I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround. I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.

Mercy M

I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround. I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.

Jane L

I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround. I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.I am very satisfied! thank you for the quick turnaround.

Rayan M


We are a freelance academic writing company geared towards provision of high quality academic papers to students worldwide.

Open chat
Scan the code
Can we help you?