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Agreement Between the United States Mexico and Canada Case Analysis Essay

Agreement Between the United States Mexico and Canada Case Analysis Essay


Title: Analysis of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) Negotiations


The U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) negotiations marked a significant shift in the trade dynamics among the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In this analysis, we will explore the concessions made by Mexico and Canada to reach an agreement with the United States, the challenges for the USMCA to be ratified, and the implications of the negotiated terms.

  1. Concessions by Mexico and Canada

To secure a replacement for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexico and Canada had to make concessions to address the concerns of the United States. The key concessions were as follows:

a. Mexico’s Concessions: Mexico made significant concessions in the automotive industry. The most notable was an agreement to increase local content requirements for vehicles, specifically for auto parts, and to add a requirement that a certain percentage of content must be performed by high-cost labor. These concessions aimed to satisfy the U.S. goal of bringing back automotive jobs to the United States.

b. Canada’s Concessions: Canada’s major concession centered around dairy and dairy products. Canada agreed to ease restrictions on American milk and cheese products, which had been a point of contention for the U.S. dairy industry.

  1. Challenges for Ratification and Implementation

Several challenges exist for the USMCA to be ratified and go into effect:

a. Legislative Approval: The agreement must be ratified by the legislatures of all three countries. This requires navigating the political dynamics in each nation, which can be complex and subject to domestic political considerations.

b. Trade Uncertainty: Trade agreements can face opposition from various stakeholders, including labor unions, industries, and interest groups. They may lobby against ratification if they believe the agreement harms their interests.

c. Geopolitical Factors: Changing geopolitical relationships and shifts in political leadership can influence the ratification process.

d. Implementation Challenges: Even after ratification, there may be challenges in implementing the agreement’s provisions effectively.

  1. Evaluation of Concessions

Whether Mexico and Canada should have offered the concessions they did to renegotiate NAFTA is a matter of debate. Here are the arguments on both sides:

a. Pro-Concession Argument: Mexico and Canada made concessions to ensure stability and maintain access to the lucrative U.S. market. Offering concessions helped prevent the imposition of tariffs and trade disruptions that could have been detrimental to their economies.

b. Anti-Concession Argument: Critics argue that some concessions may have been unnecessary or too generous. For instance, easing restrictions on dairy products in Canada could harm its domestic dairy industry. However, concessions were likely seen as a necessary compromise to secure a new trade agreement.

  1. Achieving the U.S. Goal of Bringing Back Automotive Jobs

The U.S. goal of increasing local content requirements and incorporating high-cost labor requirements in the automotive industry is aimed at revitalizing the American manufacturing sector and bringing back jobs. The success of these requirements in achieving this goal is debatable:

a. Positive Outlook: These requirements may encourage more production in the United States, which could lead to job creation. By increasing local content, the U.S. can reduce dependence on foreign-made parts.

b. Challenges: However, these requirements could also lead to higher costs for manufacturers, potentially resulting in higher prices for consumers. Additionally, automakers may opt for automation over high-cost labor, limiting the impact on job creation.


The USMCA negotiations resulted in significant concessions by Mexico and Canada, addressing various trade-related concerns. Challenges remain in ratifying and implementing the agreement, with domestic politics and industry interests playing crucial roles. The effectiveness of the U.S. goal of increasing local content and high-cost labor requirements in the automotive sector will depend on various economic and market factors. Ultimately, the USMCA represents a complex trade agreement that requires careful consideration and scrutiny as it moves forward in the ratification process.

Agreement Between the United States Mexico and Canada Case Analysis Essay





Analysis the case and answer follow questions in APA style paper.

By Kim Mackrael, Santiago Pérez and Jacob M. Schlesinge | Nov 29, 2018

SUMMARY: Mexico made concessions on cars, while Canada made concessions on cheese to pave the way for a new regional trade agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada. After President Donald Trump’s threat to move ahead with a revised agreement with Mexico but without Canada, it left Canada only a few days to negotiate a new trade deal. Canada’s key negotiator was given advice by her Mexican counterpart to offer a critical concession to break the logjam with the United States. After presenting detailed plans for easing curbs on American milk and cheese products, Canada and the United States engaged in several days of nearly round-the-clock negotiations to reach Mr. Trump’s negotiation deadline. The result was the new U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). The member countries recently signed the new pact, but it still requires ratification by legislators in all three countries before it can take effect.


  • What concessions did Mexico and Canada need to offer to reach an agreement with the United States to replace Nafta?
  • What challenges exist for the USMCA to be ratified and go into effect?
  • Should Mexico and Canada have offered the concessions that they did to renegotiate Nafta? Explain your position.
  • The U.S. goal of increasing local content requirement percentages and adding a requirement that a certain amount of content has to be performed by high-cost labor in the automotive industry in USMCA is to bring automotive jobs back to the United States. Do you think these requirements will achieve this goal? Explain your point of view.
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